by Elizabeth Howell

How differently would you think of the world if you could access the Internet from birth? That’s the wonderful situation facing the so-called Generation Z, which is considered to be almost all people born after the year 1995.

For many of these folks, there was fast Internet access in the house as long as they could remember. Social media surpassed blogs while they were in elementary school. Instant-replay GIFs (animated images) are what they watch on Tumblr, instead of instant-replay videos on a television network.

In the style of a loosely strung together blog post of disparate thoughts, here are some of my reflections on Generation Z and journalism.

Moving pictures

The 45th anniversary of the first moon landing took place on July 20, 2014, and funny enough, the occasion illustrated this generational shift to me when Time magazine published a short piece titled “45 Years Later: 5 GIFs of NASA’s First Moon Landing.”

: Earthrise over the moon, taken by a member of the Apollo 8 crew in 1968. Credit: NASA

Some people on Twitter ridiculed the piece. I opened it up and thought to myself, no, this is actually pretty brilliant. Watching the Earth rise as a stop-motion film seems to me a great way to speak to a younger person just learning about the moon program (says the person who is part of that dreaded cohort, the “don’t trust anyone over 30” crowd, but still.

Those long pieces I was taught to write in journalism school may not cut it any more. In recent months I’ve tried to shift away from long narration and into more multimedia features, using pictures and videos and where I can, GIFs. I’ll admit that GIFs are hard on my eyes – they distract me when I’m trying to read something – but sites such as Buzzfeed use it to brilliant effect. They’re popular. I can and will adapt since resistance is futile. I am a Borg like everyone else. Or something like that, as it was it didn’t quite make sense.


In the space world, last summer I saw a member of Generation Z with a spectacular example of self-education. Abigail Harrison ran her own blog and social media updates on the mission of Italian astronaut Luca Parmitano, who spent six months in space in 2013.

Italian astronaut Luca Parmitano promoted his flight on the International Space Station in 2013 with the help of a member of Generation Z: Abigail Harrison, a Minnesota teenager. Credit: NASA

How did she get the gig? She ran into Parmitano in the airport, on the way home from a NASA event that both of them attended. Pure luck. But her passion and desire to succeed attracted Parmitano’s attention, and Astronaut Abby (as she called herself) got the gig by learning about his mission and promising to teach about it to even younger students.

The Internet brings us so many ways to learn, whether it be watching Khan Academy videos or making things through Instructables. Three years ago (an eternity ago in Internet-land), entrepreneur Penelope Trunk said the college degree would become “bourgeois”” as Generation Z pursues more self-education.

It might be good for me as a journalist to point to more of these learning opportunities in my articles. While I try to point people back to, say, a space mission website when I write about it, if there was a series of videos about that mission that would be a stronger way to show the concept.

Entrepreneurial thinking

My university was great at doing journalism teaching, but the way I learned about freelancing was through guest speakers, a CSWA conference session in 2006 and a lot of trial-and-error. I know universities are smarter about that kind of thing now, especially since the bottom fell out of the journalism market shortly after and many of those full-time jobs are no longer there.

For students, educational opportunities not only include hands-on learning, but sometimes creating their own businesses as well. Credit: NASA

But Generation Z is even better than that. If this Maclean’s article is right, they just assume that entrepreneurship is the way to go, sometimes as very young teenagers. Maybe it was looking at all those Etsy shops growing up. Moreover, they don’t see age as a barrier to success, in the sense that someone still in high school would be quite happy trying to write a blog to compete with established journalists.

That’s a little frightening for people like me, but also really exciting. I always read the stuff of other journalists to see what kinds of approaches they have. I try to put myself in the mind of a very young teenager, the age I first became interested in science, and write as an entrepreneur. Snappy headlines, eye-catching first sentences. Assuming they could click away at any minute.

And it looks like now I should be reading and watching more of what Generation Z is producing, not Generation X or Y, considering “Z” is already out there.

I think they would teach me more than I could teach them about these skills. What will the market look like when these people begin writing for journalism? I’m excited to see. Frightened at how quickly I could be left behind, but excited to see how they blend this thinking into their work.

While the principles of journalism should remain the same from generation to generation, the presentation perhaps should to reflect how people absorb the information. I’m excited to see what Generation Z will teach me about my work. And maybe a little worried about Generation…..what comes after Z?

Elizabeth Howell (@howellspace) is an award-winning science journalist who focuses on space exploration. Some of her favourite stories include covering three shuttle launches, and interviewing multiple astronauts concerning their space station missions. She has also done writing work in areas such as the environment, technology and business. Elizabeth’s work appears regularly in, Universe Today, LiveScience, Space Exploration Network and the NASA Lunar Science Institute, among other places.

Titian [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Titian [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

by Egiroh Omene

The story of Sisyphus in Greek mythology describes how the gods punished a malevolent and deceitful king by making him endlessly push a boulder up a hill, only to have it roll down again.  One can’t help but see a parallel between Sisyphus’s futile endless struggle and the fruitless efforts of unsuccessful gym-goers and yo-yo dieters who, rather than gaining inches in their journey toward fitness, often end up gaining inches on their waistlines.

So will it be Jill Michaels — personal trainer to the stars —  to the rescue?  Nope, just a basic understanding of metabolism.

A more in depth understanding of the interplay between our fat storage process and our energy use process will quickly expose why going to the gym to burn fat is very inefficient.

The first thing to consider is a set of processes that people are only vaguely aware of: basal and daily metabolic rates.

Basal metabolic rate, or BMR, is defined as the amount of energy needed to sustain basic life processes at rest. For example, it is the energy you use to sustain yourself at 4 am, when you are asleep and in a fasted state (i.e., you haven’t eaten in a while and your body isn’t dedicating any energy to breaking down food).

While you are sleeping, 60 percent of your total energy needs are for powering your brain, liver and skeletal muscles, your heart and kidneys require 20 percent, and the remaining 20 percent is dedicated to miscellaneous processes.

Clearly, your body is busy at work even when you are not. So what does this work entail? Definitely not moving around. Imagine yourself at 4 am. You might toss and turn a little bit, but for the most part you are stationary.

The energy used by your organs while you are at rest manifests in a number of processes, all of which are not what we typically imagine when we think of energy use. In fact, roughly 90 percent of this energy use is for biochemical reactions! This includes anabolic reactions (e.g, building proteins from amino acids) catabolic reactions (e.g., breaking down glycogen to glucose). In addition, it entails maintaining ionic gradients within the cell, mostly in the form of the Na+/K+ pumps and Ca+ channels that sit in the cell membrane. Together, these processes keep the cells of your organs alive and functioning as they should, so that these organs can perform their vital roles and sustain life.

Most of your daily energy use is not for moving around with muscles. It’s for moving ions across cell membranes (~90%) By BruceBlaus (Own work) [CC-BY-3.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons

Most of your daily energy use is not for moving around with muscles. It’s for moving ions across cell membranes (~90%)
By BruceBlaus (Own work) [CC-BY-3.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons

It’s easy to overlook energy use at rest if you are predisposed to thinking of energy use in terms of moving around, be it walking, running, lifting weights or shoveling your driveway. After all, the notion that 90 percent of our energy use is dedicated to biochemical reactions while we are sleeping is one thing, but what about when we wake up and get going? The energy we use for physical activity surely must amount to more than the energy we use for biochemical reactions!

False. This is where we need to flip our intuitive notion of energy use upside down and face the facts. The average total daily energy expenditure for a physically active person (the type that might go to the gym three to four times a week, hit the elliptical and read Cosmopolitan magazine) is ~2500 calories. Of that 2500 calories, only 30 percent is used for physical activity, and this includes the energy used during that hour on the elliptical. Another 10 percent or so is used to digest food. That leaves a whopping 60 percent of energy use dedicated to our basic life processes, the same at rest processes described above. It doesn’t take a doctorate in advanced mathematics to see that the greater part our daily energy use, even if we religiously go to the gym, is for biochemical reactions.

Just fueling the basic processes that keep us alive, even at rest, requires more energy than you could reasonably use while working out! This brings us to the second thing we need to consider, a concept we all know well: excess calories from food will inevitably form fat stores.

Fat storage represents a mismatch between energy availability and energy use. It’s a valuable tool evolutionarily — just ask your friendly neighbourhood grizzly bear who eats as much as possible during times of plenty in order to store fat for sustenance during hibernation. While hibernation is an extreme form of energy scarcity, fat stores equip all animals for times when there is nothing to hunt or nothing to graze on. In fact, fat storage is a mechanism that largely evolved to anticipate periods of starvation. It’s primary function is to fuel the body, including all those microscopic biochemical processes, when there’s nothing to eat. The majesty of this mechanism is that it applies to humans just as much as it applies to foraging deer when the grass isn’t all too green or the wolf pack on the hunt when prey is elusive or scarce.

It’s a simple relationship: eat food to build fat stores, don’t eat food to deplete stores. Again, this turns conventional wisdom on its head: don’t we need to eat every day to fuel our body? No. For 99 percent of our evolutionary history we ate irregularly, with times of feast and times of famine, and we adapted accordingly. It does not compromise our health to go without eating a day or two —  it’s a pattern of behavior that is in line with our evolutionary design, unlike eating three meals a day on fixed intervals. We metabolize fat stores during times of fasting, our liver stores enough fat soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E and K) to last three weeks; water soluble vitamins (B and C) need to be replaced after two weeks. And — to dispel the biggest myth — we don’t use our own proteins as an energy source until true starvation, which occurs approximately after 40 days of fasting. Finally, in periods of fasting the body looks inward to dispose of and recycle defective cells in a process called autophagy or ‘self-eating’, freeing up precious biomolecules and ridding the body of broken down cells — addition by subtraction.

Again, after a day or two of fasting,* our bodies are using fat stores primarily to fuel processes that having nothing to do with moving around. (*Most studies of fasting have been done on animals.)

There are many strategies to diet, exercise and weight loss. If we bring the conversation back to how exactly our body uses energy, and if we view our dietary and eating patterns ‘under the light of evolution’ there is a strong argument to be made that fat loss happens easiest when we are fasting doing nothing!

Final note: Of course it goes without saying that even though working out is an inefficient weight loss strategy, exercise is by no means useless. Physical activity is an essential component of health and well being; after all, we are built to move. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of physical activity in curtailing many of the diseases of affluence that plague us today, including diabetes and coronary artery disease.


1) Boron, Walter F., and Emile L. Boulpaep. Medical Physiology, 2e Updated Edition: with STUDENT CONSULT Online Access. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2012. – Chapter 10, Metabolism

2) Food Intake and Starvation Induce Metabolic Changes:  (Describes energy use. Dispels protein metabolism myth. Differentiates starvation from fasting.)

3) Poehlman, ERIC T. “A review: exercise and its influence on resting energy metabolism in man.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 21.5 (1989): 515-525.

—A breakdown of daily energy expenditure.

—The Biochemistry of metabolism:

4) Seyfried, Thomas. Cancer as a metabolic disease: on the origin, management, and prevention of cancer. John Wiley & Sons, 2012.

—Chapter 4:

“Metabolic Homeostasis”  (Describes how 90% of energy use is for maintaining ionic gradients.)

 —Chapter 18:

“Therapeutic Fasting and Cancer Prevention”  (Differentiates starvation from fasting. ”

Autophagy and Autolytic Cannibalism” – A Thermodynamic Approach to Cancer Prevention. (Describes the role of the fasted state and the initiation of autophagy)

5) Recommended Reading: Eat Stop Eat, Brad Pilon: Effectively integrate resistance training and intermittent fasting for overall health and well-being.


EgirohOmeneEgiroh Omene is a senior medical student and avid NBA and hip hop fan. A philosopher at heart, which connects me to science from all disciplines.




Killerwhales_jumpingby Leanne Louie

Babel fish and Vogons may be the stuff of fiction, but The Hitchhikers Guide To The Galaxy was right about the intelligence of one marine species: dolphins.

Emerging science suggests that dolphins, alongside their toothed whale cousins (orcas and porpoises), may be the world’s ‘second-smartest animal,’ rising even above the great apes.

The larger an animal’s brain relative to its body, the more brain matter is available for complex cognition. The human encephalization quotient (EQ) is around 7.5— meaning our brains are 7.5 times as massive as expected of an animal our size. Toothed whales have EQ second in size to humans, ranging from 2 to 5.

Why Bigger Brains?

Why did such different species both evolve highly developed brains? Although we differ in many regards, whales and humans also share quite a few characteristics—we both evolved as hunters, live in social communities and lack penile bones. (Okay, only two of those are relevant.)

Social, community-living organisms tend to have higher EQs than similar but solitary animals. Living in complex, interactive societies, humans have the most highly developed brains in the animal kingdom. Among the cetaceans, it’s the toothed whales, who live in groups, rather than the more solitary baleen whales that have the highest EQs.

Research indicates that diet also seems to significantly influence brain size. Given the forethought and planning required of hunters, carnivores tend to have high EQs. The high-energy carnivorous diet also allows for more neural development than a diet of plants or insects.

As both highly social animals and adept hunters, it’s clear why toothed whales have such high EQs. In some respects, their brains actually rise above ours. Some of their neural transmission speeds are faster, and their brains have a higher ratio of surface area to volume. Caused by increased convolutions (the folds, or ridges found on the surface of the brain), a large brain surface area is known to be a strong sign of complex intelligence.

Toothed whales’ intellectual capacity is also evident in their everyday behavioural patterns. Dolphins and orcas can interpret and respond to complex directions from trainers, indicating an understanding of symbolic representations. Dolphins also use tools efficiently, with some species using sponges, shells, and self-blown bubble nets to streamline hunting techniques. They’re even able to recognize themselves in mirrors, a rare ability that indicates a sense of self-knowledge and awareness.

The ability that truly sets toothed whales apart from other animals is their capacity for learning. In captivity, they’re able to master complex routines set out by trainers, showing a particular aptitude for mimicry. Dolphins and orcas alike are expert imitators, often mimicking each other’s actions and even human postures. Imitation is one of the greatest indicators of social learning abilities.

In the wild, toothed whales display an even wider array of learned abilities. Orca mothers instruct their young in hunting techniques and dolphins employ learned tool-use. In the northern Pacific, different orca families are known to communicate using unique dialects learned from their peers. These behaviours are considered to be indications of culture— the transmission of learned behaviour.

Cognition and Identity

The advanced learning abilities of toothed whales imply a great depth of social cognition— awareness of and attention to the actions of others. Indeed, scientists have discovered a special type of cell in the brains of some cetaceans, one previously found only in humans and great apes. Called spindle cells, they’re involved in emotions and social bonding, and early research suggests some whales (including orcas) could have even more spindle cells than humans.

Furthermore, the paralimbic brain region, an area involved in the processing of emotion, is larger and more elaborate in orcas than humans. This leads to researchers like Lori Marino (the neuroscientist featured in the documentary Blackfish) to speculate orcas might lead highly emotional lives, perhaps even more so than our own.

In an interview with The Raptor Lab, Marino presented some other interesting possibilities. She proposed that toothed whales could have a distributed sense of self, almost an inability to separate their own identities from the collective. This theory would certainly explain a few of their more interesting behavioural patterns, like their synchronized movements and mass stranding events— where entire groups of whales beach themselves for no apparent reason.

Whether there is any truth to this theory of collective identity or not, it’s unquestionable that toothed whales are capable of emotional bonding and long-term social relationships. Instead of fleeing, whales released after being netted have been observed to remain alongside their still-captured companions. Dolphins call out to each other by name when separated and orcas usually stay with their families their entire lives. Some males have been known to fall in to depressive states and even die following the deaths of their mothers. Mothers seem to show a similar devotion to their young, one seen carrying her deceased calf on the water’s surface for hours. These types of actions have little or no survival value, indicating a different driving force— emotion, perhaps even love.

In light of these revelations, human society is starting to view these impressive creatures differently. Legislators in California are attempting to ban the captivity and commercial use of orcas, and in India, dolphins have been labeled non-human persons with their own set of rights.

Persons or not, it’s clear that toothed whales are capable of much more than simple circus tricks. The extent of these capabilities, we may never know. Short of leaping in to the mind of a whale, it will be difficult to ever fully understand the intellectual and emotional complexities of these organisms—but treating them with the respect they deserve is a great first step.

leanneLeanne Louie is a writer and biology student at McGill University. Read more of her work at


by David Millar

Considering the impact manmade carbon dioxide is having on the world — global warming and climate change — it’s sometimes easy to forget other factors contribute to a warming world. As science writers it is important we present a balanced picture, and a couple of recent stories from the Antarctic illustrate the pitfalls when writing about climate change and the ease of jumping to misleading conclusions.

Thwaites Glacier, west Antarctica, one of the ice streams which has started to ‘collapse’, or pour its ice uncontrollably into the sea. [Image courtesy NASA.]

Thwaites Glacier, west Antarctica, one of the ice streams which has started to ‘collapse’, or pour its ice uncontrollably into the sea. [Image courtesy NASA.]

There is no doubt that our production of CO2 leads to warmer air temperatures, which in turn contribute to more extreme weather , for example more frequent hurricanes, heavier precipitation events, or harsher droughts. But thiswas not always the case. There are many examples of natural climate change long before anthropogenic CO2 existed, often so severe it destroyed civilizations – such as the droughts that devastated the earliest civilizations in the Middle East 4,000 years ago, the Maya 1,200 years ago, or the mini-ice age that killed crops in Europe between 1550 and 1850.[1]

Climate change studies focus a lot on the Antarctic for two reasons: its presence as a large area of permanent ice at the pole dominates global air circulation patterns and hence weather systems across the planet. It also contains 90 percent of the world’s ice, an amount so large that if it melted, sea-levels worldwide would rise by over 60 metres, far more than could happen any other way (thermal expansion of the oceans caused by warmer air, which threatens the Maldives and other low-lying areas, would most likely only raise it by six to nine metres. A big deal, of course, if you live in these areas).

The rate of change of the surface elevation of the Antarctic ice sheet resulting from basal melting, as recently reported. The glaciers where most melting is occurring can easily be seen as dark red or black. Image courtesy ESA.

The rate of change of the surface elevation of the Antarctic ice sheet resulting from basal melting, as recently reported. The glaciers where most melting is occurring can easily be seen as dark red or black. Image courtesy ESA.

The past few months saw the publication of two major studies[2] [3] which were widely reported because they concluded firstly that the rate of melting of the Antarctic ice sheet has dramatically accelerated (doubling in four years), and secondly that the collapse of three major glaciers which drain the west Antarctic ice sheet has now passed the point of no return and will eventually raise global sea levels by three metres. The latter was even described by the American magazine Mother Jones as a ‘holy shit moment for climate change science’, and other newspaper reports cited the studies as yet more evidence of the havoc we are wreaking on the world’s climate. Was this fair and representative science writing? Not really.

Perhaps the most common failure in the media was to present these results in perspective. Not a single article that I saw mentioned the crucial fact that the Antarctic has been slowly melting for around 20,000 years – in fact ever since the end of the last ice age.[4] In other words the melting started long before anthropogenic CO2 came on the scene, and in fact even before modern human industrialization. And even though the new studies show that the rate of melt has recently increased, such sudden increases have been observed at least eight times over the past 20,000 years.4

The headline result of the first study, that the rate of melting of the Antarctic is now estimated at 159 billion tonnes per year, was widely quoted – but again no one put it in perspective by pointing out that this enormous amount being lost each year represents only 0.0006 percent of the total ice sheet mass. That sounds much less catastrophic, doesn’t it? In fact at that rate it would take almost 2,000 years for the entire ice sheet to melt, so plenty of time to get those sandbags around the door. In fact, the authors of the study even stated that it would take 200 to 900 years for the effects of the melting to be noticeable, but very few commentators mentioned that rather mundane, yet key fact.

Neither of the studies looked at the underlying causes of the observed melting, other than to comment that since the glaciers in question were on the coast, presumably increased ocean temperatures were to blame. Even so, many journalists jumped to the conclusion that increased ocean temperatures must have been caused by warmer air temperatures due to anthropogenic activities (even though the atmospheric circulation around the Antarctic actually makes this unlikely, since the circumpolar vortex semi-isolates the polar regions from the air circulation in the northern hemisphere where the bulk of the manmade CO2 is produced). A glance at the map of where the melting has been observed, all in one small area of west Antarctica, should also raise suspicions: if the cause were truly global warming then why is most of the melting just in one place?

Last month two more studies provided what may be the answer. One showed that the geothermal heat flow in the area where the melting has been observed is several times higher than is normal for the continent due to an area of volcanism,[5] meaning that the base of the ice sheet in this specific area is effectively being slowly cooked from below by the earth’s natural heat. A second study discovered an active volcano beneath the ice sheet not far away. It is now clear that this volcanism is most likely the dominant factor responsible for the melting observed by the first two studies, meaning that atmospheric global warming plays a much smaller role or quite possibly none at all.

How does this leave the press coverage of these important climate change research? In retrospect much of it was really quite misleading. It implied that manmade CO2 was to blame and that sea levels would rise in the near future as a result, when the truth was that it had little or nothing to do with CO2, and sea levels would in any case take hundreds of years to have any observable impact. The moral? All of us in science journalism have a duty to present developments responsibly to the general public. We should all be very concerned about the impact we are having on our weather, but anthropogenic CO2 is not to blame for all climate change phenomena and in this case the melting of the Antarctic ice sheet is something that was happening long before we came on the scene, and there is no evidence to date that its recent acceleration is due to our activities.


David MillarDavid Millar is a science writer with an interest in past climate change. He is a former Assistant Editor of Nature and holds a PhD in Antarctic glaciology.

[1] The Long Summer: How Climate Changed Civilization, by Brian Fagan, Basic Books, 2004

[2] Increased ice losses from Antarctica detected by CryoSat-2 by Malcolm McMillan, Andrew Shepherd, Aud Sundal, Kate Briggs, Alan Muir, Andrew Ridout, Anna Hogg and Duncan Wingham published in Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060111

[3] Widespread, rapid grounding line retreat of Pine Island, Thwaites, Smith and Kohler glaciers, West Antarctica from 1992 to 2011 by E. Rignot, J. Mouginot, M. Morlighem, H. Seroussi and B. Scheuchl published in Geophyiscal Research Letters. DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060140

[4] Millennial-scale variability in Antarctic ice-sheet discharge during the last deglaciation, by M.E.Weber et al, Nature, vol 510, 134-135, 2014, doi:10.1038/nature13397

[5] Evidence for elevated and spatially variable geothermal flux beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, by D.M. Schroder et al, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2014, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1405184111


Dandelion rubber rebounds as a promising source of natural rubber

By Meredith Hanel

dandelion truck‘Tis that time of year when suburbanites go to war each weekend to prevent their lawn from being overrun by dandelions. Yet, this lowly plant is being cultivated by research labs in Canada, Germany and the USA because that white liquid you see when you break off the stems contains something valuable to the world – rubber.

Eighty per cent of rubber is produced in Southeast Asia from the Amazonian Para rubber tree. Yet the reign of the rubber tree may at an end due to decreased land availability and disease. Land designated to rubber tree plantations in Southeast Asia is being replaced with more economical palm oil plantations. Since rubber trees are genetically homogeneous, they are vulnerable to South American Leaf Blight, which has already made it impossible to grow rubber trees for commercial use in their native South America.

Dandelions produce rubber of equal quality to rubber trees and have advantages over other rubber producing plants because they grow quickly and can be grown in a variety of climates and conditions. You can even make your own homemade rubber bands of dandelion goop. However only certain species of dandelion produce enough rubber to compete with the rubber tree.

Decreased transport time to production sites and ability to make use of marginal agricultural land are some ‘green’ reasons that the dandelion rubber project in Germany won a
GreenTec award in May 2014. Biotech firm Nova-BioRubber of British Columbia plans to make dandelion rubber production even ‘greener’ by using a physical extraction method rather than using solvents, which can also produce a hypoallergenic latex, a plus for latex gloves, condoms and catheters. Dandelion root as an alternative source of rubber is receiving some strong backing from tire giants like Bridgestone and Continental.

Dandelions lost and found
Interest in dandelion rubber is not new. In 1931, scientists discovered the Russian dandelion (Taraxacum koksaghyz) in Southeastern Kazakhstan as a promising source of rubber after Joseph Stalin demanded that the Soviet Union have their own source of rubber. By the mid 1950s, as politics changed and rubber could again be acquired cheaply from rubber tree plantations, interest in the dandelion flagged.

In the last 5-10 years, due to the predicted inability of rubber tree plantations to keep up with increasing global demand, interest in the high rubber producing dandelion species T. koksaghyz renewed, but it could not be cultivated as all of the stored samples were actually of another species Taraxacum brevicorniculatum, a weed that had contaminated the samples and is a poorer producer of rubber. Surely there were a few disappointed Ph.D. students who had spent long hours working on the wrong dandelion species, T. brevicorniculatum!

In 2008, scientists on expeditions to Kazakhstan found the lost Russian dandelion putting research into this potential resource back on track.

Meanwhile, despite it being a poorer producer, researchers are now capitalizing on some of
T. brevicorniculatum attributes.  Unlike T. koksahyz which reproduces sexually, T. brevicorniculatum has fast reproduction of identical clones, which is great for testing growing conditions and makes teasing out the molecular biology of latex far simpler. This makes it a great model plant to learn more about how plants make rubber and how we may manipulate them to make more rubber that is easy to extract. Still, the Russian dandelion, T. koksaghyz is the star rubber producer needed to make rubber at a reasonable cost.

Dandelion rubber challenges
While dandelions are quicker to grow than rubber trees, pulling dandelions out of the ground and bashing up the roots to extract latex involves more processing steps than does tapping the bark of a rubber tree. To bring down production costs, genetic modifications can improve rubber production in dandelions. A German research group improved extraction by knocking out a gene involved in coagulation, making the latex more fluid. Non-GMO approaches, crossing the Russian dandelion with other dandelion species, are used by Dutch biotech company KeyGene. The competition is on to find the most efficient way to get rubber from dandelions. And maybe someday suburban warriors will be weeding the grass out of their dandelion beds.

headshot (2)Meredith earned her PhD in medical genetics and  spent many years in the lab doing research in molecular and developmental biology related to medicine. Meredith works in science outreach with Scientists in School. She enjoys writing about science and loves to find out the biology behind just about anything in nature. You can read her blog at



Kirschner, J. et al. (2013) Available ex situ germplasm of the potential rubber crop Taraxacum koksaghyz belongs to the poor rubber producer, T. brevicorniculatum. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 60: 455-471.

Venkatachalam, P. et al. (2013) Natural rubber producing plants: An overview. African Journal of Biotechnology. 12(12): 1297-1310.

Wahler, D. et al. (2012) Proteomic analysis of latex from the rubber-producing plant Taraxacum brevicorniculatum. Proteomics. 12: 901-905.

Wahler, D. et al. (2009) Polyphenoloxidase silencing affects latex coagulation in Taraxacum species. Plant Physiology. 151(1): 334-346.
On the Rebound: Scientists revive search for new rubber sources. Science News, August 2013

Fraunhofer and Continental come together when the dandelion rubber meets the road. Fraunhofer Press Release, October 2013

Dutch Biotech Firm to Make Car Tires From Hybrid Dandelions. Inhabitat weblog, February 2013

Abbotsford company’s Russian dandelion could provide eco-friendly rubber. The Vancouver Sun, May 2014

Continental Wins GreenTec Award 2014 for Dandelion rubber. Continental Press Release, May 2014

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